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The third mode of heat transfer is radiation. The transmission of thermal radiation does not require the presence of a propagating medium and, therefore can occur in a vacuum. Thermal radiation is a form of energy emitted by matter at a nonzero temperature and its wavelength is primarily in the range between 0.1 to 10 μm. Emission can be from a solid surface as well as from a liquid or gas. Thermal radiation may be considered to be the propagation of electromagnetic waves or alternately as the propagation of a collection of particles, such as photons or quanta of photons.