# Fully Developed Laminar Flow and Temperature Profile

(Difference between revisions)
 Revision as of 02:51, 7 July 2010 (view source) (Created page with '==Fully Developed Velocity Distribution== The velocity distribution is derived from the continuity and momentum equations along with the slip condition. The velocity profile is …')← Older edit Current revision as of 08:34, 27 July 2010 (view source) (14 intermediate revisions not shown) Line 1: Line 1: ==Fully Developed Velocity Distribution== ==Fully Developed Velocity Distribution== - The velocity distribution is derived from the continuity and momentum equations along with the slip condition. The velocity profile is expressed in terms of Knudsen number. + The velocity distribution is derived from the continuity and momentum equations along with the slip condition. The velocity profile is expressed in terms of Knudsen number.  The model for the analysis of velocity distribution can be considered as the flow of a fluid in a circular tube of radius ''ro''. - The model for the analysis of velocity distribution can be considered as the flow of a fluid in a circular tube of radius ro, as shown in Fig. 5.22. + The continuity equation in cylindrical coordinates is given as: The continuity equation in cylindrical coordinates is given as: Line 19: Line 19: $\frac{\partial u}{\partial x}=0$ $\frac{\partial u}{\partial x}=0$ - |{{EquationRef|(1)}} + |{{EquationRef|(2)}} |} |} - Therefore, rv = constant.  Since the radial velocity at the wall is zero (impermeability condition), it can be concluded that v = 0 everywhere in the flow field. + Therefore, ''rv'' = constant.  Since the radial velocity at the wall is zero (impermeability condition), it can be concluded that ''v'' = 0 everywhere in the flow field. - The steady parabolic momentum equation in the x-direction can be written in cylindrical coordinates as: + The steady parabolic momentum equation in the ''x''-direction can be written in cylindrical coordinates as: {| class="wikitable" border="0" {| class="wikitable" border="0" Line 29: Line 29: $\rho u\frac{\partial u}{\partial x}+\rho v\frac{\partial u}{\partial r}=\frac{\mu }{r}\frac{\partial }{\partial r}\left( r\frac{\partial u}{\partial r} \right)-\frac{\partial p}{\partial x}$ $\rho u\frac{\partial u}{\partial x}+\rho v\frac{\partial u}{\partial r}=\frac{\mu }{r}\frac{\partial }{\partial r}\left( r\frac{\partial u}{\partial r} \right)-\frac{\partial p}{\partial x}$ - |{{EquationRef|(1)}} + |{{EquationRef|(3)}} |} |} For fully developed, steady flow of incompressible fluid, it reduces to: For fully developed, steady flow of incompressible fluid, it reduces to: Line 38: Line 38: $-\frac{dp}{dx}+\frac{\mu }{r}\frac{d}{dr}\left( r\frac{du}{dr} \right)=0$ $-\frac{dp}{dx}+\frac{\mu }{r}\frac{d}{dr}\left( r\frac{du}{dr} \right)=0$ - |{{EquationRef|(1)}} + |{{EquationRef|(4)}} |} |} - As the velocity is independent of x, a constant C1 can be defined as: + As the velocity is independent of ''x'', a constant ''C1'' can be defined as: {| class="wikitable" border="0" {| class="wikitable" border="0" Line 47: Line 47: ${{C}_{1}}=-\frac{1}{4\mu }\frac{dp}{dx}$ ${{C}_{1}}=-\frac{1}{4\mu }\frac{dp}{dx}$ - |{{EquationRef|(1)}} + |{{EquationRef|(5)}} |} |} Therefore, the momentum equation reduces to: Therefore, the momentum equation reduces to: Line 56: Line 56: $4{{C}_{1}}+\frac{1}{r}\frac{d}{dr}\left( r\frac{du}{dr} \right)=0$ $4{{C}_{1}}+\frac{1}{r}\frac{d}{dr}\left( r\frac{du}{dr} \right)=0$ - |{{EquationRef|(1)}} + |{{EquationRef|(6)}} |} |} The above equation is integrated twice to yield: The above equation is integrated twice to yield: Line 63: Line 63: |- |- | width="100%" |
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- $u={{C}_{2}}\ln r+{{C}_{3}}-{{C}_{1}}{{r}^{2}}$ + $\begin{matrix}{}&{}\\\end{matrix}u={{C}_{2}}\ln r+{{C}_{3}}-{{C}_{1}}{{r}^{2}}$
- |{{EquationRef|(1)}} + |{{EquationRef|(7)}} |} |} - Since the velocity, u, is finite at the center of the tube (r = 0), we conclude C2=0. At the centerline of the tube (r = 0), the velocity is equal to uc, therefore, u(0) = uc = C3. At the inner surface of the tube wall (r = ro), the velocity is not zero due to the slip flow condition, but is equal to a finite velocity us: + Since the velocity, ''u'', is finite at the center of the tube (''r'' = 0), we conclude ''C2''=0. At the centerline of the tube (''r'' = 0), the velocity is equal to ''uc'', therefore, ''u''(0) = ''uc'' = ''C3''. At the inner surface of the tube wall (''r'' = ''ro''), the velocity is not zero due to the slip flow condition, but is equal to a finite velocity us: {| class="wikitable" border="0" {| class="wikitable" border="0" Line 74: Line 74: $u({{r}_{o}})={{u}_{s}}={{u}_{c}}-{{C}_{1}}r_{o}^{2}$ $u({{r}_{o}})={{u}_{s}}={{u}_{c}}-{{C}_{1}}r_{o}^{2}$ - |{{EquationRef|(1)}} + |{{EquationRef|(8)}} |} |} - Rearranging and solving for C1 we have: + Rearranging and solving for ''C1'' we have: {| class="wikitable" border="0" {| class="wikitable" border="0" Line 83: Line 83: ${{C}_{1}}=\frac{{{u}_{c}}-{{u}_{s}}}{r_{0}^{2}}=-\frac{1}{4\mu }\frac{dp}{dx}$ ${{C}_{1}}=\frac{{{u}_{c}}-{{u}_{s}}}{r_{0}^{2}}=-\frac{1}{4\mu }\frac{dp}{dx}$ - |{{EquationRef|(1)}} + |{{EquationRef|(9)}} |} |} The velocity profile is obtained as follows: The velocity profile is obtained as follows: Line 92: Line 92: $u={{u}_{c}}-({{u}_{c}}-{{u}_{s}}){{(r/{{r}_{o}})}^{2}}={{u}_{c}}[1-{{(r/{{r}_{o}})}^{2}}]+{{u}_{s}}{{(r/{{r}_{o}})}^{2}}$ $u={{u}_{c}}-({{u}_{c}}-{{u}_{s}}){{(r/{{r}_{o}})}^{2}}={{u}_{c}}[1-{{(r/{{r}_{o}})}^{2}}]+{{u}_{s}}{{(r/{{r}_{o}})}^{2}}$ - |{{EquationRef|(1)}} + |{{EquationRef|(10)}} |} |} - The mean velocity in the tube, ${{u}_{m}}$, is now evaluated.  The volumetric flow rate is: + + The mean velocity in the tube, ${{u}_{m}}$, is now evaluated.  The volumetric flow rate is: {| class="wikitable" border="0" {| class="wikitable" border="0" Line 101: Line 102: $\pi r_{0}^{2}{{u}_{m}}=\int_{0}^{{{r}_{0}}}{2\pi rudr}$ $\pi r_{0}^{2}{{u}_{m}}=\int_{0}^{{{r}_{0}}}{2\pi rudr}$ - |{{EquationRef|(1)}} + |{{EquationRef|(11)}} |} |} therefore, therefore, Line 108: Line 109: |- |- | width="100%" |
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- ${{u}_{m}}=2[{{u}_{c}}/2-({{u}_{c}}-{{u}_{s}})/4]=({{u}_{c}}+{{u}_{s}})/2$ + $\begin{matrix}{}&{}\\\end{matrix}{{u}_{m}}=2[{{u}_{c}}/2-({{u}_{c}}-{{u}_{s}})/4]=({{u}_{c}}+{{u}_{s}})/2$
- |{{EquationRef|(1)}} + |{{EquationRef|(12)}} |} |} The centerline velocity can be written as: The centerline velocity can be written as: Line 117: Line 118: |- |- | width="100%" |
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- ${{u}_{c}}=2{{u}_{m}}-{{u}_{s}}$ + $\begin{matrix}{}&{}\\\end{matrix}{{u}_{c}}=2{{u}_{m}}-{{u}_{s}}$
- |{{EquationRef|(1)}} + |{{EquationRef|(13)}} |} |} Using the above relation, we get the following velocity profile in a microchannel: Using the above relation, we get the following velocity profile in a microchannel: Line 126: Line 127: |- |- | width="100%" |
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- $u=2({{u}_{m}}-{{u}_{s}})(1-{{r}^{+2}})+{{u}_{s}}$ + $\begin{matrix}{}&{}\\\end{matrix}u=2({{u}_{m}}-{{u}_{s}})(1-{{r}^{+2}})+{{u}_{s}}$
- |{{EquationRef|(1)}} + |{{EquationRef|(14)}} |} |} - where r+=r/ro. If the slip velocity is zero, the velocity distribution reduces to the Poiseuille flow distribution for conventional channels. + where ''r+''=''r''/''ro''. If the slip velocity is zero, the velocity distribution reduces to the Poiseuille flow distribution for conventional channels. - The velocity slip is given by the following condition [see eq. (5.194)]: + The velocity slip is given by the following condition: {| class="wikitable" border="0" {| class="wikitable" border="0" Line 138: Line 139: ${{u}_{s}}=-\frac{2-F}{F}\lambda {{\left. \frac{du}{dr} \right|}_{r={{r}_{o}}}}$ ${{u}_{s}}=-\frac{2-F}{F}\lambda {{\left. \frac{du}{dr} \right|}_{r={{r}_{o}}}}$ - |{{EquationRef|(1)}} + |{{EquationRef|(15)}} |} |} - For most applications, F has values near unity. Therefore, + For most applications, ''F'' has values near unity. Therefore, {| class="wikitable" border="0" {| class="wikitable" border="0" Line 147: Line 148: ${{u}_{s}}=-\lambda {{\left. \frac{du}{dr} \right|}_{r={{r}_{o}}}}$ ${{u}_{s}}=-\lambda {{\left. \frac{du}{dr} \right|}_{r={{r}_{o}}}}$ - |{{EquationRef|(1)}} + |{{EquationRef|(16)}} |} |} - + [[Image:Fig5.23.png|thumb|400 px|alt=Non-dimensional, fully developed velocity profile in a microchannel as a function of Knudsen number |Non-dimensional, fully developed velocity profile in a microchannel as a function of Knudsen number.]] - + The slip velocity is derived using eq. (14) for velocity profile: - The slip velocity is derived using eq. (5.209) for velocity profile: + {| class="wikitable" border="0" {| class="wikitable" border="0" Line 158: Line 158: ${{u}_{s}}=-\frac{\lambda }{{{r}_{o}}}{{\left. \frac{du}{d{{r}^{+}}} \right|}_{{{r}^{+}}=1}}=\frac{4\lambda ({{u}_{m}}-{{u}_{s}})}{{{r}_{o}}}=\frac{8\lambda ({{u}_{m}}-{{u}_{s}})}{D}$ ${{u}_{s}}=-\frac{\lambda }{{{r}_{o}}}{{\left. \frac{du}{d{{r}^{+}}} \right|}_{{{r}^{+}}=1}}=\frac{4\lambda ({{u}_{m}}-{{u}_{s}})}{{{r}_{o}}}=\frac{8\lambda ({{u}_{m}}-{{u}_{s}})}{D}$ - |{{EquationRef|(1)}} + |{{EquationRef|(17)}} |} |} The Knudsen number, $\text{Kn}=\lambda /D$, is introduced in the above relation to obtain the following equation for the slip velocity: The Knudsen number, $\text{Kn}=\lambda /D$, is introduced in the above relation to obtain the following equation for the slip velocity: Line 167: Line 167: $\frac{{{u}_{s}}}{{{u}_{m}}}=\frac{8\text{Kn}}{1+8\text{Kn}}$ $\frac{{{u}_{s}}}{{{u}_{m}}}=\frac{8\text{Kn}}{1+8\text{Kn}}$ - |{{EquationRef|(1)}} + |{{EquationRef|(18)}} |} |} - Substituting the above into eq. (5.209), the non-dimensional expression for the velocity profile is obtained: + Substituting the above into eq. (14), the non-dimensional expression for the velocity profile is obtained: {| class="wikitable" border="0" {| class="wikitable" border="0" Line 176: Line 176: $\frac{u}{{{u}_{m}}}=\frac{2(1-{{r}^{+2}})+8\text{Kn}}{1+8\text{Kn}}$ $\frac{u}{{{u}_{m}}}=\frac{2(1-{{r}^{+2}})+8\text{Kn}}{1+8\text{Kn}}$ - |{{EquationRef|(1)}} + |{{EquationRef|(19)}} |} |} - The velocity distribution is shown in Fig. 5.23 for different Kn numbers.  The slip velocity at the wall increases with an increasing Kn number. - Fully Developed Heat Transfer Coefficient in Microchannel + The velocity distribution is shown in figure to the right for different Kn numbers.  The slip velocity at the wall increases with an increasing Kn number. - The flow is considered to be steady, laminar, and fully developed both hydrodynamically and thermally. The conventional continuum approach is coupled with the two main characteristics of the microscale phenomena, the velocity slip and the temperature jump, as noted above. The energy equation including the viscous dissipation term for steady, fully developed flow in a pipe and neglecting axial conduction is: + + ==Fully Developed Heat Transfer Coefficient in Microchannel== + + The flow is considered to be steady, laminar, and fully developed both hydrodynamically and thermally.Faghri, A., Zhang, Y., and Howell, J. R., 2010, Advanced Heat and Mass Transfer, Global Digital Press, Columbia, MO. The conventional continuum approach is coupled with the two main characteristics of the microscale phenomena, the velocity slip and the temperature jump, as noted above. The energy equation including the viscous dissipation term for steady, fully developed flow in a pipe and neglecting axial conduction is: {| class="wikitable" border="0" {| class="wikitable" border="0" Line 188: Line 190: $u\frac{\partial T}{\partial x}=\frac{\alpha }{r}\frac{\partial }{\partial r}\left( r\frac{\partial T}{\partial r} \right)+\frac{\nu }{{{c}_{p}}}{{\left( \frac{\partial u}{\partial r} \right)}^{2}}$ $u\frac{\partial T}{\partial x}=\frac{\alpha }{r}\frac{\partial }{\partial r}\left( r\frac{\partial T}{\partial r} \right)+\frac{\nu }{{{c}_{p}}}{{\left( \frac{\partial u}{\partial r} \right)}^{2}}$ - |{{EquationRef|(1)}} + |{{EquationRef|(20)}} |} |} - The variation of temperature in the r-direction at the center is zero due to axisymmetric conditions: + The variation of temperature in the ''r''-direction at the center is zero due to axisymmetric conditions: {| class="wikitable" border="0" {| class="wikitable" border="0" Line 197: Line 199: ${{\left. \frac{\partial T}{\partial r} \right|}_{r=0}}=0$ ${{\left. \frac{\partial T}{\partial r} \right|}_{r=0}}=0$ - |{{EquationRef|(1)}} + |{{EquationRef|(21)}} |} |} Also, the temperature jump condition for the fluid at the wall is written as follows: Also, the temperature jump condition for the fluid at the wall is written as follows: Line 206: Line 208: ${{T}_{s}}-{{T}_{w}}=-\frac{2-{{F}_{t}}}{{{F}_{t}}}\frac{4\gamma }{1+\gamma }\frac{\text{Kn}}{\Pr }{{\left. \frac{\partial T}{\partial r} \right|}_{r={{r}_{o}}}}$ ${{T}_{s}}-{{T}_{w}}=-\frac{2-{{F}_{t}}}{{{F}_{t}}}\frac{4\gamma }{1+\gamma }\frac{\text{Kn}}{\Pr }{{\left. \frac{\partial T}{\partial r} \right|}_{r={{r}_{o}}}}$ - |{{EquationRef|(1)}} + |{{EquationRef|(22)}} |} |} - Both conventional boundary conditions of constant heat flux and constant temperature at the wall are solved analytically by Aydin and Avci (2006) for microchannel with circular cross-section, which are presented below. + Both conventional boundary conditions of constant heat flux and constant temperature at the wall are solved analytically by Aydin and Avci Aydin, O., M. Avci, 2006, “Heat and Fluid Flow Characteristics of Gases in Micropipes,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, Vol. 49, pp. 1723-1730. for microchannel with circular cross-section, which are presented below. + + ===Constant Heat Flux at the Wall=== + + The constant heat flux at the wall is described by: + + {| class="wikitable" border="0" + |- + | width="100%" |
+ $k{{\left. \frac{\partial T}{\partial r} \right|}_{r={{r}_{0}}}}={{{q}''}_{w}}$ +
+ |{{EquationRef|(23)}} + |} + where $q_{w}^{''}$ is positive when its direction is to the fluid (the hot wall) and negative when its direction is from the fluid (the cold wall). + For the constant wall heat flux, the following equation, similar to the analysis presented for conventional heat pipes, is applicable: + + {| class="wikitable" border="0" + |- + | width="100%" |
+ $\frac{\partial T}{\partial x}=\frac{d{{T}_{w}}}{dx}=\frac{d{{T}_{s}}}{dx}$ +
+ |{{EquationRef|(24)}} + |} + Substituting eq. (19) into eq. (20) and non-dimensionalizing the resultant equation yield: + + {| class="wikitable" border="0" + |- + | width="100%" |
+ $\frac{1}{{{r}^{+}}}\frac{d}{d{{r}^{+}}}\left( {{r}^{+}}\frac{d{{\theta }_{q}}}{d{{r}^{+}}} \right)={{\beta }_{1}}\left( 1-{{r}^{{{+}^{2}}}}+4\text{Kn} \right)+32B{{r}_{q}}\frac{{{r}^{{{+}^{2}}}}}{{{\left( 1+8\text{Kn} \right)}^{2}}}$ +
+ |{{EquationRef|(25)}} + |} + where + + {| class="wikitable" border="0" + |- + | width="100%" |
+ $B{{r}_{q}}=\frac{\mu u_{m}^{2}}{Dq_{w}^{''}}\text{, }\theta _{q}^{{}}=\frac{T-{{T}_{s}}}{{{{{q}''}}_{w}}{{r}_{0}}/k},\text{ }{{\beta }_{1}}=-\frac{2\rho {{c}_{p}}{{u}_{m}}{{r}_{o}}}{\left( 1+8\text{Kn} \right){{{{q}''}}_{w}}}\frac{d{{T}_{s}}}{dx}$ +
+ |{{EquationRef|(26)}} + |} + Since ${{\beta }_{1}}$ is unknown, three non-dimensional boundary conditions are required for the second order ODE, eq. (25): + + {| class="wikitable" border="0" + |- + | width="100%" |
+ \begin{align} & \frac{\partial {{\theta }_{q}}}{\partial {{r}^{+}}}=0\text{ at }{{r}^{+}}=0 \\ & {{\theta }_{q}}=0\text{ and }\frac{\partial {{\theta }_{q}}}{\partial {{r}^{+}}}=-1\text{ at }{{r}^{+}}=1 \\ \end{align} +
+ |{{EquationRef|(27)}} + |} + The solution of eq. (25) using the above boundary conditions is: + + {| class="wikitable" border="0" + |- + | width="100%" |
+ ${{\theta }_{q}}\left( {{r}^{+}} \right)={{\beta }_{1}}\left( \frac{{{r}^{{{+}^{2}}}}}{4}-\frac{{{r}^{+4}}}{16}+\text{Kn}{{r}^{{{+}^{2}}}} \right)+{{\beta }_{2}}\left( \frac{{{r}^{+4}}}{16} \right)-{{\beta }_{3}}$ +
+ |{{EquationRef|(28)}} + |} + where + + {| class="wikitable" border="0" + |- + | width="100%" |
+ ${{\beta }_{2}}=\frac{32B{{r}_{q}}}{{{\left( 1+8\text{Kn} \right)}^{2}}}\text{, }{{\beta }_{1}}=-\frac{{{\beta }_{2}}+4}{1+8\text{Kn}}\text{, }{{\beta }_{3}}=\frac{{{\beta }_{2}}+{{\beta }_{1}}\left( 3+16\text{Kn} \right)}{16}$ +
+ |{{EquationRef|(29)}} + |} + The local heat transfer coefficient, ''h'', is: + + {| class="wikitable" border="0" + |- + | width="100%" |
+ $h=\frac{k}{{{T}_{w}}-{{T}_{m}}}{{\left. \frac{\partial T}{\partial r} \right|}_{r={{r}_{o}}}}$ +
+ |{{EquationRef|(30)}} + |} + The Nusselt number, based on $\theta _{q}^{{}}$ is: + + {| class="wikitable" border="0" + |- + | width="100%" |
+ $\text{Nu}=\frac{hD}{k}=\frac{2}{\theta _{q,m}^{{}}-\theta _{q,w}^{{}}}$ +
+ |{{EquationRef|(31)}} + |} + [[Image:Fig5.24.png|thumb|400 px|alt=The variation of the Nusselt number for microchannel, with the Knudsen number, for different values of the Brinkman number for constant heat flux at the wall |The variation of the Nusselt number for microchannel, with the Knudsen number, for different values of the Brinkman number for constant heat flux at the wall.]] + + where the non-dimensional mean temperature ($\theta _{q,m}^{{}}$) and slip temperature at the wall ($\theta _{q,w}^{{}}$) are given as follows: + + {| class="wikitable" border="0" + |- + | width="100%" |
+ $\theta _{q,m}^{{}}\text{=}\frac{\text{1}}{\text{4}}\text{+}\frac{5+{{\beta }_{\text{2}}}+\text{Kn}\left( 32+\text{6}{{\beta }_{\text{2}}} \right)}{24{{\left( 1+8\text{Kn} \right)}^{2}}}$ +
+ |{{EquationRef|(32)}} + |} + + {| class="wikitable" border="0" + |- + | width="100%" |
+ $\theta _{q,w}^{{}}\text{=-}\frac{\text{2-}{{F}_{t}}}{{{F}_{t}}}\frac{4\gamma }{1+\gamma }\frac{\text{Kn}}{\Pr }$ +
+ |{{EquationRef|(33)}} + |} + + Aydin and Avci investigated the effects of the Brinkman number and Knudsen number for both fully developed flow and temperature profile in a microchannel with circular cross-section using the above analytical technique. Kn = 0 represents the macroscale case, while Kn > 0 holds for the microscale case, and Brq = 0 represents the case without the effect of the viscous dissipation. + + Figure to the right shows the variation of Nusselt number with the Knudsen number for different Brinkman numbers for the case of constant wall heat flux Bahrami, H., 2009, Personal Communication, Storrs, CT.. For Brq = 0, an increase at Kn decreases Nu due to the temperature slip at the wall. Viscous dissipation significantly affects Nu.  Positive values of Brq correspond to wall heating (${{{q}''}_{w}}>0$), while the opposite is true for negative values of Brq. With no viscous dissipation, the solution is independent of whether there is wall heating or cooling.  Nu decreases with increasing Brq for the wall heating case. Increasing Brq in the negative direction increases Nu. The trend followed by Nu versus Kn for lower values of the Brinkman number, either in the case of wall heating (Brq = 0.05) or in the case of wall cooling (Brq = –0.05) is very similar to that of Brq = 0. For the wall cooling case, at Brq = –0.1, the decreasing effect of Kn on Nu is more significant.  At Brq = 0.1, increasing Kn increases Nu up to $\text{Kn}\approx 0.01$ where a maximum occurs, after which Nu decreases with increasing Kn. + + ===Constant Wall Temperature=== + + Aydin and Avci investigated the effects of the Brinkman and Knudsen numbers for both fully developed flow and temperature profile in a microchannel with circular cross-section tube subjected to constant wall temperature. They assumed that the fluid temperature at the wall does not change along the tube length, i.e. $d{{T}_{s}}/dx=0$. However, their analysis for the viscous dissipation effect on Nusselt number was found to be inconsistent with other researchers’ results Hooman, K., 2008, “Comments on ‘Viscous-dissipation effects on the heat transfer in a Poiseuille flow’ by O. Aydin and M. Avci”, Applied Energy, Vol. 85, pp. 70-72. In the following the effect of the Knudsen number for both fully developed flow and temperature profile in a microchannel subjected to constant wall temperature considering variation of fluid temperature at the wall (i.e. $d{{T}_{s}}/dx\ne 0$) is presented . + The non-dimensional temperature profile is defined as: + + {| class="wikitable" border="0" + |- + | width="100%" |
+ $\theta =\frac{{{T}_{s}}-T}{{{T}_{s}}-{{T}_{c}}}\text{ }$ +
+ |{{EquationRef|(34)}} + |} + where ${{T}_{c}}$ is the fluid temperature at the centerline. + Substituting eq. (19) into eq. (20),  neglecting the viscous dissipation, and non-dimensionalizing the resultant equation give us: + + {| class="wikitable" border="0" + |- + | width="100%" |
+ $\frac{1}{{{r}^{+}}}\frac{d}{d{{r}^{+}}}\left( {{r}^{+}}\frac{d\theta }{d{{r}^{+}}} \right)=\left( {{\beta }_{1}}\theta +{{\beta }_{2}}\left( 1-\theta \right) \right)\left( 1-{{r}^{{{+}^{2}}}}+4\text{Kn} \right)$ +
+ |{{EquationRef|(35)}} + |} + where: + + {| class="wikitable" border="0" + |- + | width="100%" |
+ ${{\beta }_{1}}=\frac{2{{u}_{m}}r_{o}^{2}}{\left( 1+8\text{Kn} \right)\alpha \left( {{T}_{c}}-{{T}_{s}} \right)}\frac{d{{T}_{c}}}{dx}$ +
+ |{{EquationRef|(36)}} + |} + + {| class="wikitable" border="0" + |- + | width="100%" |
+ ${{\beta }_{2}}=\frac{2{{u}_{m}}r_{o}^{2}}{\left( 1+8\text{Kn} \right)\alpha \left( {{T}_{c}}-{{T}_{s}} \right)}\frac{d{{T}_{s}}}{dx}$ +
+ |{{EquationRef|(37)}} + |} + Equation (35) is subject to the following boundary conditions: + + {| class="wikitable" border="0" + |- + | width="100%" |
+ \begin{align} & \frac{\partial \theta }{\partial {{r}^{+}}}=0\text{ and }\theta =1\text{ at }{{r}^{+}}=0 \\ & \theta =0\text{ at }{{r}^{+}}=1 \\ \end{align} +
+ |{{EquationRef|(38)}} + |} + [[Image:Fig5.25.png|thumb|400 px|alt=Variation of the fully developed Nusselt number for microchannel with the Knudsen number for constant wall temperature and neglecting viscous dissipation effects |Variation of the fully developed Nusselt number for microchannel with the Knudsen number for constant wall temperature and neglecting viscous dissipation effects.]] + [[Image:Fig5.26.png|thumb|400 px|alt=Effect of temperature jump on fully developed Nu in microchannel for different Brq when the wall is subjected to constant heat flux |Effect of temperature jump on fully developed Nu in microchannel for different Brq when the wall is subjected to constant heat flux.]] + [[Image:Fig5.27.png|thumb|400 px|alt=The effect of temperature jump on fully developed Nu for microchannel when the wall is subjected to constant temperature |The effect of temperature jump on fully developed Nu for microchannel when the wall is subjected to constant temperature.]] + The Nusselt number based on $\theta$ is: + + {| class="wikitable" border="0" + |- + | width="100%" |
+ $\text{Nu}=\frac{hD}{k}=\frac{-2{{\left( \frac{\partial \theta }{\partial {{r}^{+}}} \right)}_{{{r}^{+}}=1}}}{\theta _{m}^{{}}-\theta _{w}^{{}}}$ +
+ |{{EquationRef|(39)}} + |} + where $\theta _{m}^{{}}$ is the non-dimensional mean temperature, and $\theta _{w}^{{}}$ is the slip temperature at the wall.  The relation between ${{\beta }_{1}}$ and ${{\beta }_{2}}$ can be obtained by taking the derivative of slip temperature boundary conditions along the ''x''-direction, and the results are given bellow: + +
$\frac{d{{T}_{c}}}{dx}=\frac{\xi }{\xi +1}\frac{d{{T}_{s}}}{dx}\text{, }\xi =-\frac{2-{{F}_{t}}}{{{F}_{t}}}\frac{4\gamma }{1+\gamma }\frac{\text{Kn}}{\Pr }Nu\left( \theta _{m}^{{}}-\theta _{w}^{{}} \right)$
+ + A closed form solution for Nu cannot be obtained for this case. However, the solution of ''θ'' can be obtained by using an iterative procedure.  The temperature profile for the constant heat flux at the wall can be used as the first approximation, and eq. (35) is then integrated to obtain ''θ''.  This iterative procedure is repeated until an acceptable convergence is obtained. However, in order to get a very good accuracy, a forth-order Rung-Kutta procedure is employed to solve eq. (35). + + Figure to the right presents Nu versus Kn for the case of constant wall temperature . Similar trends to those obtained for the case of constant heat flux at the wall are observed.  Nu values for the case of constant wall temperature are, for the same Kn, lower than those Nu values for the case of constant heat flux at the wall. + + The fully developed Nusselt numbers for $0<\text{Kn}<0.12$ and no viscous dissipation are shown in following two tables for constant wall temperature and heat flux, respectively . The fully developed Nusselt number decreases as Kn increases. +
+
+ '''Table ''' Fully developed Nusselt numbers for microtubes with Br = 0, and constant temperature at the wall + {| class="wikitable" border="1" + | align="center" style="background:#f0f0f0;" width="10%" | + | align="center" style="background:#f0f0f0;" width="10%" | Pr=0.6 + | align="center" style="background:#f0f0f0;" width="10%" | Pr=0.65 + | align="center" style="background:#f0f0f0;" width="10%" | Pr=0.7 + | align="center" style="background:#f0f0f0;" width="10%" | Pr=0.75 + | align="center" style="background:#f0f0f0;" width="10%" | Pr=0.8 + | align="center" style="background:#f0f0f0;" width="10%" | Pr=0.85 + | align="center" style="background:#f0f0f0;" width="10%" | Pr=0.9 + | align="center" style="background:#f0f0f0;" width="10%" | Pr=0.95 + | align="center" style="background:#f0f0f0;" width="10%" | Pr=1.0 + |- + |Kn=0 + |3.657 + |3.657 + |3.657 + |3.657 + |3.657 + |3.657 + |3.657 + |3.657 + |3.657 + |- + |Kn=0.02 + |3.432 + |3.462 + |3.488 + |3.512 + |3.532 + |3.550 + |3.566 + |3.580 + |3.593 + |- + |Kn=0.04 + |3.191 + |3.245 + |3.292 + |3.334 + |3.372 + |3.405 + |3.436 + |3.463 + |3.488 + |- + |Kn=0.06 + |2.952 + |3.024 + |3.088 + |3.145 + |3.196 + |3.243 + |3.285 + |3.323 + |3.359 + |- + |Kn=0.08 + |2.728 + |2.812 + |2.887 + |2.955 + |3.017 + |3.074 + |3.126 + |3.173 + |3.217 + |- + |Kn=0.1 + |2.522 + |2.614 + |2.697 + |2.773 + |2.843 + |2.907 + |2.967 + |3.022 + |3.073 + |- + |Kn=0.12 + |2.337 + |2.433 + |2.521 + |2.603 + |2.678 + |2.747 + |2.812 + |2.872 + |2.929 + |} +
+ +
+
+ '''Table ''' Fully developed Nusselt numbers for microchannel with Brq = 0, and constant heat flux at the wall + {| class="wikitable" border="1" + | align="center" style="background:#f0f0f0;" width="10%" | + | align="center" style="background:#f0f0f0;" width="10%" | Pr=0.6 + | align="center" style="background:#f0f0f0;" width="10%" | Pr=0.65 + | align="center" style="background:#f0f0f0;" width="10%" | Pr=0.7 + | align="center" style="background:#f0f0f0;" width="10%" | Pr=0.75 + | align="center" style="background:#f0f0f0;" width="10%" | Pr=0.8 + | align="center" style="background:#f0f0f0;" width="10%" | Pr=0.85 + | align="center" style="background:#f0f0f0;" width="10%" | Pr=0.9 + | align="center" style="background:#f0f0f0;" width="10%" | Pr=0.95 + | align="center" style="background:#f0f0f0;" width="10%" | Pr=1.0 + |- + |Kn=0.00 + |4.364 + |4.364 + |4.364 + |4.364 + |4.364 + |4.364 + |4.364 + |4.364 + |4.364 + |- + |Kn=0.02 + |3.981 + |4.029 + |4.071 + |4.108 + |4.141 + |4.171 + |4.197 + |4.221 + |4.243 + |- + |Kn=0.04 + |3.599 + |3.678 + |3.749 + |3.812 + |3.870 + |3.922 + |3.969 + |4.013 + |4.053 + |- + |Kn=0.06 + |3.252 + |3.350 + |3.439 + |3.519 + |3.593 + |3.661 + |3.723 + |3.781 + |3.834 + |- + |Kn=0.08 + |2.949 + |3.057 + |3.156 + |3.247 + |3.331 + |3.409 + |3.481 + |3.549 + |3.612 + |- + |Kn=0.10 + |2.687 + |2.799 + |2.904 + |3.000 + |3.091 + |3.175 + |3.254 + |3.327 + |3.397 + |- + |Kn=0.12 + |2.461 + |2.575 + |2.681 + |2.781 + |2.874 + |2.962 + |3.044 + |3.122 + |3.195 + |} +
+ + The effect of temperature jump on the Nusselt number is shown in the last two figures. The solid and dashed lines represent the results obtained for considering the temperature jump and neglecting the temperature jump conditions, respectively.  When the temperature jump condition is not accounted for, i.e. only the velocity slip condition is taken into consideration, the Nusselt number increases with increasing Kn, which indicates that the velocity slip and temperature jump have opposite effects on the Nusselt number. + + ==References== + {{Reflist}}

## Fully Developed Velocity Distribution

The velocity distribution is derived from the continuity and momentum equations along with the slip condition. The velocity profile is expressed in terms of Knudsen number. The model for the analysis of velocity distribution can be considered as the flow of a fluid in a circular tube of radius ro.

The continuity equation in cylindrical coordinates is given as: $\frac{\partial \rho }{\partial t}+\frac{1}{r}\frac{\partial }{\partial r}\left( \rho rv \right)+\frac{\partial }{\partial x}\left( \rho u \right)=0$ (1)

For steady and fully developed flow of an incompressible fluid, it becomes: $\frac{\partial u}{\partial x}=0$ (2)

Therefore, rv = constant. Since the radial velocity at the wall is zero (impermeability condition), it can be concluded that v = 0 everywhere in the flow field. The steady parabolic momentum equation in the x-direction can be written in cylindrical coordinates as: $\rho u\frac{\partial u}{\partial x}+\rho v\frac{\partial u}{\partial r}=\frac{\mu }{r}\frac{\partial }{\partial r}\left( r\frac{\partial u}{\partial r} \right)-\frac{\partial p}{\partial x}$ (3)

For fully developed, steady flow of incompressible fluid, it reduces to: $-\frac{dp}{dx}+\frac{\mu }{r}\frac{d}{dr}\left( r\frac{du}{dr} \right)=0$ (4)

As the velocity is independent of x, a constant C1 can be defined as: ${{C}_{1}}=-\frac{1}{4\mu }\frac{dp}{dx}$ (5)

Therefore, the momentum equation reduces to: $4{{C}_{1}}+\frac{1}{r}\frac{d}{dr}\left( r\frac{du}{dr} \right)=0$ (6)

The above equation is integrated twice to yield: $\begin{matrix}{}&{}\\\end{matrix}u={{C}_{2}}\ln r+{{C}_{3}}-{{C}_{1}}{{r}^{2}}$ (7)

Since the velocity, u, is finite at the center of the tube (r = 0), we conclude C2=0. At the centerline of the tube (r = 0), the velocity is equal to uc, therefore, u(0) = uc = C3. At the inner surface of the tube wall (r = ro), the velocity is not zero due to the slip flow condition, but is equal to a finite velocity us: $u({{r}_{o}})={{u}_{s}}={{u}_{c}}-{{C}_{1}}r_{o}^{2}$ (8)

Rearranging and solving for C1 we have: ${{C}_{1}}=\frac{{{u}_{c}}-{{u}_{s}}}{r_{0}^{2}}=-\frac{1}{4\mu }\frac{dp}{dx}$ (9)

The velocity profile is obtained as follows: $u={{u}_{c}}-({{u}_{c}}-{{u}_{s}}){{(r/{{r}_{o}})}^{2}}={{u}_{c}}[1-{{(r/{{r}_{o}})}^{2}}]+{{u}_{s}}{{(r/{{r}_{o}})}^{2}}$ (10)

The mean velocity in the tube, um, is now evaluated. The volumetric flow rate is: $\pi r_{0}^{2}{{u}_{m}}=\int_{0}^{{{r}_{0}}}{2\pi rudr}$ (11)

therefore, $\begin{matrix}{}&{}\\\end{matrix}{{u}_{m}}=2[{{u}_{c}}/2-({{u}_{c}}-{{u}_{s}})/4]=({{u}_{c}}+{{u}_{s}})/2$ (12)

The centerline velocity can be written as: $\begin{matrix}{}&{}\\\end{matrix}{{u}_{c}}=2{{u}_{m}}-{{u}_{s}}$ (13)

Using the above relation, we get the following velocity profile in a microchannel: $\begin{matrix}{}&{}\\\end{matrix}u=2({{u}_{m}}-{{u}_{s}})(1-{{r}^{+2}})+{{u}_{s}}$ (14)

where r+=r/ro. If the slip velocity is zero, the velocity distribution reduces to the Poiseuille flow distribution for conventional channels. The velocity slip is given by the following condition: ${{u}_{s}}=-\frac{2-F}{F}\lambda {{\left. \frac{du}{dr} \right|}_{r={{r}_{o}}}}$ (15)

For most applications, F has values near unity. Therefore, ${{u}_{s}}=-\lambda {{\left. \frac{du}{dr} \right|}_{r={{r}_{o}}}}$ (16)

The slip velocity is derived using eq. (14) for velocity profile: ${{u}_{s}}=-\frac{\lambda }{{{r}_{o}}}{{\left. \frac{du}{d{{r}^{+}}} \right|}_{{{r}^{+}}=1}}=\frac{4\lambda ({{u}_{m}}-{{u}_{s}})}{{{r}_{o}}}=\frac{8\lambda ({{u}_{m}}-{{u}_{s}})}{D}$ (17)

The Knudsen number, Kn = λ / D, is introduced in the above relation to obtain the following equation for the slip velocity: $\frac{{{u}_{s}}}{{{u}_{m}}}=\frac{8\text{Kn}}{1+8\text{Kn}}$ (18)

Substituting the above into eq. (14), the non-dimensional expression for the velocity profile is obtained: $\frac{u}{{{u}_{m}}}=\frac{2(1-{{r}^{+2}})+8\text{Kn}}{1+8\text{Kn}}$ (19)

The velocity distribution is shown in figure to the right for different Kn numbers. The slip velocity at the wall increases with an increasing Kn number.

## Fully Developed Heat Transfer Coefficient in Microchannel

The flow is considered to be steady, laminar, and fully developed both hydrodynamically and thermally. The conventional continuum approach is coupled with the two main characteristics of the microscale phenomena, the velocity slip and the temperature jump, as noted above. The energy equation including the viscous dissipation term for steady, fully developed flow in a pipe and neglecting axial conduction is: $u\frac{\partial T}{\partial x}=\frac{\alpha }{r}\frac{\partial }{\partial r}\left( r\frac{\partial T}{\partial r} \right)+\frac{\nu }{{{c}_{p}}}{{\left( \frac{\partial u}{\partial r} \right)}^{2}}$ (20)

The variation of temperature in the r-direction at the center is zero due to axisymmetric conditions: ${{\left. \frac{\partial T}{\partial r} \right|}_{r=0}}=0$ (21)

Also, the temperature jump condition for the fluid at the wall is written as follows: ${{T}_{s}}-{{T}_{w}}=-\frac{2-{{F}_{t}}}{{{F}_{t}}}\frac{4\gamma }{1+\gamma }\frac{\text{Kn}}{\Pr }{{\left. \frac{\partial T}{\partial r} \right|}_{r={{r}_{o}}}}$ (22)

Both conventional boundary conditions of constant heat flux and constant temperature at the wall are solved analytically by Aydin and Avci  for microchannel with circular cross-section, which are presented below.

### Constant Heat Flux at the Wall

The constant heat flux at the wall is described by: $k{{\left. \frac{\partial T}{\partial r} \right|}_{r={{r}_{0}}}}={{{q}''}_{w}}$ (23)

where $q_{w}^{''}$ is positive when its direction is to the fluid (the hot wall) and negative when its direction is from the fluid (the cold wall). For the constant wall heat flux, the following equation, similar to the analysis presented for conventional heat pipes, is applicable: $\frac{\partial T}{\partial x}=\frac{d{{T}_{w}}}{dx}=\frac{d{{T}_{s}}}{dx}$ (24)

Substituting eq. (19) into eq. (20) and non-dimensionalizing the resultant equation yield: $\frac{1}{{{r}^{+}}}\frac{d}{d{{r}^{+}}}\left( {{r}^{+}}\frac{d{{\theta }_{q}}}{d{{r}^{+}}} \right)={{\beta }_{1}}\left( 1-{{r}^{{{+}^{2}}}}+4\text{Kn} \right)+32B{{r}_{q}}\frac{{{r}^{{{+}^{2}}}}}{{{\left( 1+8\text{Kn} \right)}^{2}}}$ (25)

where $B{{r}_{q}}=\frac{\mu u_{m}^{2}}{Dq_{w}^{''}}\text{, }\theta _{q}^{{}}=\frac{T-{{T}_{s}}}{{{{{q}''}}_{w}}{{r}_{0}}/k},\text{ }{{\beta }_{1}}=-\frac{2\rho {{c}_{p}}{{u}_{m}}{{r}_{o}}}{\left( 1+8\text{Kn} \right){{{{q}''}}_{w}}}\frac{d{{T}_{s}}}{dx}$ (26)

Since β1 is unknown, three non-dimensional boundary conditions are required for the second order ODE, eq. (25): \begin{align} & \frac{\partial {{\theta }_{q}}}{\partial {{r}^{+}}}=0\text{ at }{{r}^{+}}=0 \\ & {{\theta }_{q}}=0\text{ and }\frac{\partial {{\theta }_{q}}}{\partial {{r}^{+}}}=-1\text{ at }{{r}^{+}}=1 \\ \end{align} (27)

The solution of eq. (25) using the above boundary conditions is: ${{\theta }_{q}}\left( {{r}^{+}} \right)={{\beta }_{1}}\left( \frac{{{r}^{{{+}^{2}}}}}{4}-\frac{{{r}^{+4}}}{16}+\text{Kn}{{r}^{{{+}^{2}}}} \right)+{{\beta }_{2}}\left( \frac{{{r}^{+4}}}{16} \right)-{{\beta }_{3}}$ (28)

where ${{\beta }_{2}}=\frac{32B{{r}_{q}}}{{{\left( 1+8\text{Kn} \right)}^{2}}}\text{, }{{\beta }_{1}}=-\frac{{{\beta }_{2}}+4}{1+8\text{Kn}}\text{, }{{\beta }_{3}}=\frac{{{\beta }_{2}}+{{\beta }_{1}}\left( 3+16\text{Kn} \right)}{16}$ (29)

The local heat transfer coefficient, h, is: $h=\frac{k}{{{T}_{w}}-{{T}_{m}}}{{\left. \frac{\partial T}{\partial r} \right|}_{r={{r}_{o}}}}$ (30)

The Nusselt number, based on $\theta _{q}^{{}}$ is: $\text{Nu}=\frac{hD}{k}=\frac{2}{\theta _{q,m}^{{}}-\theta _{q,w}^{{}}}$ (31) The variation of the Nusselt number for microchannel, with the Knudsen number, for different values of the Brinkman number for constant heat flux at the wall.

where the non-dimensional mean temperature ( $\theta _{q,m}^{{}}$) and slip temperature at the wall ( $\theta _{q,w}^{{}}$) are given as follows: $\theta _{q,m}^{{}}\text{=}\frac{\text{1}}{\text{4}}\text{+}\frac{5+{{\beta }_{\text{2}}}+\text{Kn}\left( 32+\text{6}{{\beta }_{\text{2}}} \right)}{24{{\left( 1+8\text{Kn} \right)}^{2}}}$ (32) $\theta _{q,w}^{{}}\text{=-}\frac{\text{2-}{{F}_{t}}}{{{F}_{t}}}\frac{4\gamma }{1+\gamma }\frac{\text{Kn}}{\Pr }$ (33)

Aydin and Avci  investigated the effects of the Brinkman number and Knudsen number for both fully developed flow and temperature profile in a microchannel with circular cross-section using the above analytical technique. Kn = 0 represents the macroscale case, while Kn > 0 holds for the microscale case, and Brq = 0 represents the case without the effect of the viscous dissipation.

Figure to the right shows the variation of Nusselt number with the Knudsen number for different Brinkman numbers for the case of constant wall heat flux . For Brq = 0, an increase at Kn decreases Nu due to the temperature slip at the wall. Viscous dissipation significantly affects Nu. Positive values of Brq correspond to wall heating (q''w > 0), while the opposite is true for negative values of Brq. With no viscous dissipation, the solution is independent of whether there is wall heating or cooling. Nu decreases with increasing Brq for the wall heating case. Increasing Brq in the negative direction increases Nu. The trend followed by Nu versus Kn for lower values of the Brinkman number, either in the case of wall heating (Brq = 0.05) or in the case of wall cooling (Brq = –0.05) is very similar to that of Brq = 0. For the wall cooling case, at Brq = –0.1, the decreasing effect of Kn on Nu is more significant. At Brq = 0.1, increasing Kn increases Nu up to $\text{Kn}\approx 0.01$ where a maximum occurs, after which Nu decreases with increasing Kn.

### Constant Wall Temperature

Aydin and Avci  investigated the effects of the Brinkman and Knudsen numbers for both fully developed flow and temperature profile in a microchannel with circular cross-section tube subjected to constant wall temperature. They assumed that the fluid temperature at the wall does not change along the tube length, i.e. dTs / dx = 0. However, their analysis for the viscous dissipation effect on Nusselt number was found to be inconsistent with other researchers’ results . In the following the effect of the Knudsen number for both fully developed flow and temperature profile in a microchannel subjected to constant wall temperature considering variation of fluid temperature at the wall (i.e. $d{{T}_{s}}/dx\ne 0$) is presented . The non-dimensional temperature profile is defined as: $\theta =\frac{{{T}_{s}}-T}{{{T}_{s}}-{{T}_{c}}}\text{ }$ (34)

where Tc is the fluid temperature at the centerline. Substituting eq. (19) into eq. (20), neglecting the viscous dissipation, and non-dimensionalizing the resultant equation give us: $\frac{1}{{{r}^{+}}}\frac{d}{d{{r}^{+}}}\left( {{r}^{+}}\frac{d\theta }{d{{r}^{+}}} \right)=\left( {{\beta }_{1}}\theta +{{\beta }_{2}}\left( 1-\theta \right) \right)\left( 1-{{r}^{{{+}^{2}}}}+4\text{Kn} \right)$ (35)

where: ${{\beta }_{1}}=\frac{2{{u}_{m}}r_{o}^{2}}{\left( 1+8\text{Kn} \right)\alpha \left( {{T}_{c}}-{{T}_{s}} \right)}\frac{d{{T}_{c}}}{dx}$ (36) ${{\beta }_{2}}=\frac{2{{u}_{m}}r_{o}^{2}}{\left( 1+8\text{Kn} \right)\alpha \left( {{T}_{c}}-{{T}_{s}} \right)}\frac{d{{T}_{s}}}{dx}$ (37)

Equation (35) is subject to the following boundary conditions: \begin{align} & \frac{\partial \theta }{\partial {{r}^{+}}}=0\text{ and }\theta =1\text{ at }{{r}^{+}}=0 \\ & \theta =0\text{ at }{{r}^{+}}=1 \\ \end{align} (38) Variation of the fully developed Nusselt number for microchannel with the Knudsen number for constant wall temperature and neglecting viscous dissipation effects. Effect of temperature jump on fully developed Nu in microchannel for different Brq when the wall is subjected to constant heat flux.

The Nusselt number based on θ is: $\text{Nu}=\frac{hD}{k}=\frac{-2{{\left( \frac{\partial \theta }{\partial {{r}^{+}}} \right)}_{{{r}^{+}}=1}}}{\theta _{m}^{{}}-\theta _{w}^{{}}}$ (39)

where $\theta _{m}^{{}}$ is the non-dimensional mean temperature, and $\theta _{w}^{{}}$ is the slip temperature at the wall. The relation between β1 and β2 can be obtained by taking the derivative of slip temperature boundary conditions along the x-direction, and the results are given bellow: $\frac{d{{T}_{c}}}{dx}=\frac{\xi }{\xi +1}\frac{d{{T}_{s}}}{dx}\text{, }\xi =-\frac{2-{{F}_{t}}}{{{F}_{t}}}\frac{4\gamma }{1+\gamma }\frac{\text{Kn}}{\Pr }Nu\left( \theta _{m}^{{}}-\theta _{w}^{{}} \right)$

A closed form solution for Nu cannot be obtained for this case. However, the solution of θ can be obtained by using an iterative procedure. The temperature profile for the constant heat flux at the wall can be used as the first approximation, and eq. (35) is then integrated to obtain θ. This iterative procedure is repeated until an acceptable convergence is obtained. However, in order to get a very good accuracy, a forth-order Rung-Kutta procedure is employed to solve eq. (35).

Figure to the right presents Nu versus Kn for the case of constant wall temperature . Similar trends to those obtained for the case of constant heat flux at the wall are observed. Nu values for the case of constant wall temperature are, for the same Kn, lower than those Nu values for the case of constant heat flux at the wall.

The fully developed Nusselt numbers for 0 < Kn < 0.12 and no viscous dissipation are shown in following two tables for constant wall temperature and heat flux, respectively . The fully developed Nusselt number decreases as Kn increases.

Table Fully developed Nusselt numbers for microtubes with Br = 0, and constant temperature at the wall

 Pr=0.6 Pr=0.65 Pr=0.7 Pr=0.75 Pr=0.8 Pr=0.85 Pr=0.9 Pr=0.95 Pr=1.0 Kn=0 3.657 3.657 3.657 3.657 3.657 3.657 3.657 3.657 3.657 Kn=0.02 3.432 3.462 3.488 3.512 3.532 3.550 3.566 3.580 3.593 Kn=0.04 3.191 3.245 3.292 3.334 3.372 3.405 3.436 3.463 3.488 Kn=0.06 2.952 3.024 3.088 3.145 3.196 3.243 3.285 3.323 3.359 Kn=0.08 2.728 2.812 2.887 2.955 3.017 3.074 3.126 3.173 3.217 Kn=0.1 2.522 2.614 2.697 2.773 2.843 2.907 2.967 3.022 3.073 Kn=0.12 2.337 2.433 2.521 2.603 2.678 2.747 2.812 2.872 2.929

Table Fully developed Nusselt numbers for microchannel with Brq = 0, and constant heat flux at the wall

 Pr=0.6 Pr=0.65 Pr=0.7 Pr=0.75 Pr=0.8 Pr=0.85 Pr=0.9 Pr=0.95 Pr=1.0 Kn=0.00 4.364 4.364 4.364 4.364 4.364 4.364 4.364 4.364 4.364 Kn=0.02 3.981 4.029 4.071 4.108 4.141 4.171 4.197 4.221 4.243 Kn=0.04 3.599 3.678 3.749 3.812 3.870 3.922 3.969 4.013 4.053 Kn=0.06 3.252 3.350 3.439 3.519 3.593 3.661 3.723 3.781 3.834 Kn=0.08 2.949 3.057 3.156 3.247 3.331 3.409 3.481 3.549 3.612 Kn=0.10 2.687 2.799 2.904 3.000 3.091 3.175 3.254 3.327 3.397 Kn=0.12 2.461 2.575 2.681 2.781 2.874 2.962 3.044 3.122 3.195

The effect of temperature jump on the Nusselt number is shown in the last two figures. The solid and dashed lines represent the results obtained for considering the temperature jump and neglecting the temperature jump conditions, respectively. When the temperature jump condition is not accounted for, i.e. only the velocity slip condition is taken into consideration, the Nusselt number increases with increasing Kn, which indicates that the velocity slip and temperature jump have opposite effects on the Nusselt number.

## References

1. Faghri, A., Zhang, Y., and Howell, J. R., 2010, Advanced Heat and Mass Transfer, Global Digital Press, Columbia, MO.
2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Aydin, O., M. Avci, 2006, “Heat and Fluid Flow Characteristics of Gases in Micropipes,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, Vol. 49, pp. 1723-1730.
3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 Bahrami, H., 2009, Personal Communication, Storrs, CT.
4. Hooman, K., 2008, “Comments on ‘Viscous-dissipation effects on the heat transfer in a Poiseuille flow’ by O. Aydin and M. Avci”, Applied Energy, Vol. 85, pp. 70-72