Fossil Fuels Exercises

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Exercises I. Essay Questions 1. Who are the top fi ve producers and top fi ve consumers of petroleum? 2. When was OPEC established and why? Name eight of OPEC’s member states. 3. How much carbon dioxide is put into the air for every gallon of gasoline burned in an average car? 4. Where are the main sources of tar sands and shale oil? What are major impediments in using these resources on a large commercial scale? 5. How is coal classifi ed? What are the characteristics of the best kind of coal? 6. What are the underlying assumptions in Hubbert’s model? According to his model, when will half of all total reserves (past and future) be used up? 7. What is the diff erence between reserves and resources? In your opinion, is there a limit to the amount of reserves in the world? 8. What are some of the techniques for discovering oil? Explain the principle of operation for two of them. 9. What are the advantages and disadvantages associated with tar sands and oil shale? What is the role that these resources will play in meeting the future energy needs? 10. Explain the sources of confl ict in the Middle East. How are they related to oil? Is there a sensible solution to problems gripping this region? II. Multiple Choice Questions 1. Which energy source is used most by the United States? a. Coal b. Petroleum c. Natural Gas d. Solar e. Hydroelectric 2. Aft er Saudi Arabia, the US a. Has the largest oil reserve b. Has the largest oil resources c. Is the largest oil producer d. Has the largest coal deposits e. All of the above 3. Gasoline is a product of refi ning a. Coal b. Petroleum crude c. Natural gas d. Propane e. Ethanol 4. What percentage of the world’s proven oil reserves is in the United States? a. 2-3% b. 10-12% c. 15-20% d. 25-30% e. More than 30% 5. Natural gas is transported mainly by a. Pipelines b. Trucks c. Barges d. Trains e. All four, roughly equally 6. Th e three countries with the largest petroleum reserves in the world are a. Saudi Arabia, United States, and Russia b. Saudi Arabia, Venezuela, and the United Arab Emirate c. Saudi Arabia, Iran, and Iraq d. Iran, Iraq, and Kuwait e. United States, China, and Russia 7. Th e top three oil consuming countries in the world are a. Saudi Arabia, United States, and Russia b. United States, India, and China c. Saudi Arabia, Iraq, and Kuwait d. United States, China, and Russia e. United States, Japan, and China 169 Chapter 7 - Fossil Fuels 8. Among the OPEC members that border the Persian Gulf are a. Iran, Libya, Kuwait, and Saudi Arabia b. Iran, Iraq, Algeria, and United Arab Emirates c. Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, and Saudi Arabia d. Iraq, Venezuela, Qatar, and Saudi Arabia e. Pakistan, Iran, Iraq, and Kuwait 9. Th e largest reserves of natural gas are in a. Saudi Arabia b. Iraq c. Th e United States d. Th e Russian Federation e. China 10. Th e largest reserves of coal are in a. Saudi Arabia b. Iraq c. Th e United States d. Th e Russian Federation e. China 11. Petroleum is primarily used in the United States in a. Transportation b. Generating electricity c. Heating and cooling buildings d. Th e petrochemical industry e. Th e pharmaceutical industry 12. In pockets containing petroleum, a. Oil is on top, water in the middle, and gas at the bott om b. Oil is on top, gas in the middle, and water at the bott om c. Water is on top, oil in the middle, and gas at the bott om d. Gas is on top, water in the middle, and oil at the bott om e. Gas is on top, oil in the middle, and water at the bott om 13. Most of the United States’ oil imports are from a. Canada b. Mexico c. Saudi Arabia d. Alaska e. Europe 14. Over ______ percent of all petroleum reserves lie in the Persian Gulf region. a. 99 b. 90 c. 80 d. 60 e. 20 15. Natural gas combined-cycle combustion turbines a. Have greater combined effi ciency b. Have lower rates of pollutant emissions c. Can be used as central or distributed d. Reject heat at lower temperatures e. All of the above 16. Propane is the fuel of choice on farms and in rural areas, mainly because it is a. Safer b. Portable c. Cleaner d. Cheaper e. More plentiful 17. Which country is the largest coal producer in the world? a. Th e United States b. Russia c. China d. India e. Germany 18. Which of the following statements is correct? a. Natural gas is formed by heating petroleum until it is turned to a gas. b. Th e largest reserves of natural gas are in Russia and Iran. c. Natural gas reserves can be found only where there is oil. d. Aft er the Middle East, Th e United States is the largest producer of natural gas. e. Natural gas is composed of methane, ethane, and propane in roughly equal proportions. 19. Which US state is the largest producer of petroleum? a. California b. Louisiana 170 c. Alaska d. Texas e. Pennsylvania 20. Which fossil fuel creates the lowest amount of carbon dioxide per kilogram of fuel burned? a. Methane b. Methanol c. Coal d. Petroleum e. All four produce about the same amount 21. For each kilogram of gasoline we burn in our cars, we pollute about ______ kilogram of air. a. 1 b. 15 c. 100 d. Over 1,000 e. Cannot tell 22. Th e amount of a natural resource that may become available for use is called a. Reserves b. Reservoirs c. Resources d. Supplies e. Capacity 23. Proven reserve refers to a ________ percent probability of fi nding new reserves. a. 10% b. 50% c. 90% d. 99% e. 100% 24. Peat a. is the highest quality form of fossil fuel b. is the fi rst stage in the formation of coal c. is embedded in tar sands d. is made by compressing animal dung e. is the nickname for Peter 25. Which of the following statements is true about tar sand? a. Tar sand is expected to play a signifi cant role in energy production in the 21st century. b. About 2/3 of all tar sand deposits in the world resides in the US. c. Tar sand is a clean source of energy. Unfortunately it is expensive to produce. d. Per mass basis, tar sand yields a relatively large amount of energy. e. All of the above. III. True or False? 1. Coal, petroleum, natural gas, and propane are called fossil fuels because they are formed from the buried remains of plants and animals that lived millions of years ago. 2. It is possible to fi nd natural gas even if no petroleum is found. 3. It is estimated that over 70% of all of the world’s recoverable natural gas has been used already. 4. Hydrogen is the cleanest form of fossil fuel. 5. Chemical reactions that release heat are called exothermic. 6. Th e secondary recovery technique relies on reducing the oil viscosity. 7. At the point at which oil production reaches its peak, half of all oil has been already consumed. 8. Peak production represents the mid-time that a particular resource is available to us. 9. Th e P-90 reserve fi gures generally over- estimates the amount of proven reserves. 10. With the existing technologies, over 90% of all petroleum reserves can be extracted. 11. During the next doubling time for coal production, we will use as much coal as we have used up to this point. 12. According to many experts, global oil production will peak sometime during this decade. 171 Chapter 7 - Fossil Fuels 13. A great portion of coal reserves resides in the Middle East. 14. At the current rate of consumption, the remaining US coal resources should last an additional 300 years. 15. Oil shale is an oily substance found usually in seashells. IV. Fill-in the Blanks 1. Coal reserves are typically categorized by _____ and _________. 2. Although _________ has the most coal reserves in the world, it is ________ which produces (and consumes) the most coal. 3. Tar sands are grains of sands containing a viscous carbonaceous substance called ____________. 4. Th e combustible fuel in the oil shale is a waxy solid called ____________. 5. Th e substance remaining in the bott om of the distillation column is _________. 6. Th e propane and butane removed from natural gas are usually liquefi ed under pressure and sold as _________________. 7. Natural gas is the cleanest form of fossil fuel because it has the highest _________ ratio. 8. Th e other name for liquefi ed petroleum gas is the __________ gas. 9. Th e United States reached its peak oil production sometime during _________. 10. Th e total amount of a resource produced as of today is called _____________ production. V. PROJECT I - Hubbert’s Curve Describe the major assumptions implicit in King Hubert’s prediction concerning oil production. Use his estimates on the world petroleum production (shown on the cover of this book) to calculate the growth rate during decades spanning from 1900 to the present. 1. Plot the cumulative total production as a function of time. What does this graph look like? Why? 2. What is the size of total endowment? 3. What is the doubling time at around the turn of the century? 4. Based on his prediction, and assume the patt ern of production follows his estimates, how much longer, do our petroleum resources last? PROJECT II – Status of Energy Resources In this project you are asked to investigate the status of energy resources, reserves, and use in the United States and compare it with those of the world as a whole. Th e main source of data is the Energy Information Agency of the US Department of Energy (htt p://eia.doe.gov), but other sources may need to be considered. Please answer the following questions: 1. What is the total annual energy consumption (in quads and billions of barrels of “oil equivalent”) for various energy sources: oil, gas, coal, renewable, and nuclear? for various energy sectors: transportation, industrialized, residential and commercial? 2. What fraction of the primary energy consumption is used to generate electricity? Give the percentage from each source. 3. What are the ultimate sizes of the US and the world reserves? 4. What is the energy consumption per capita? How fast does total energy consumption increase with a rise in the gross domestic product (GDP)? 5. What is the energy consumption per every $1,000 of income? Compare US data with China, India, and the European Union. 172 Work Sheet For Project II Th e United States Th e World Quads Percent Quads Percent 1. Consumption a. Consumption by Source Oil Gas Coal Nuclear Renewable b. Consumption by Sector Transportation Industrial Residential & Commercial 2. Electricity by Source Oil Gas Coal Nuclear Renewable 3. Ultimate Size of Reserves X X 4. Energy Consumption Per Capita X X a. Annual Rate of Energy Growth X X b. Annual Rate of Growth in GDP X X