Air Pollution from Combustion Summary Exercises

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Exercises I. Essay Questions: 1. What is the difference between weather and climate? What are the major factors that determine weather and climate? 2. What factor(s) determine(s) global temperature? Explain how. 3. Describe what the greenhouse effect is and how it contributes to global warming. 4. What are the sources of pollution? Which sector contributes most? 5. What does sequestration of carbon dioxide mean? Describe a few methods by which atmospheric carbon dioxide can be sequestered. 6. How does acid rain form? Where is the acid rain problem more severe and why? What are its effects on health, the environment, and water supplies? 7. Why do some highly polluted lakes appear to be clean? 8. Is a higher concentration of ozone in the lower atmosphere good or bad? In the upper atmosphere? Explain. 9. What is the difference between primary and secondary pollutants? Name a few pollutants in each category. 10. What are the criteria pollutants and why are they important? Which pollutants are considered criteria air pollutants and why? 11. What do primary and secondary pollutants refer to? What are the main primary and secondary pollutants in our atmosphere? 12. What is the air quality standard and how is it determined? What constitutes healthy air quality? What about hazardous? 13. What was the main purpose of the Rio Summit? The Kyoto Treaty? The Montreal Protocol? How have they been implemented? 14. What are the indoor air pollutants and how do they affect our health? 15. Sea salt actually puts more chlorine into the Earth’s atmosphere than anything else, but is not a contributor to ozone depletion. Why not? 16. How do you assess the outcome of Montreal and Kyoto Protocols? Name a few accomplishments and shortcomings. II. Multiple Choice Questions: 1. The increase observed in atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide over the past 100 years is most likely due to a. Variations in the rate of lunar eclipses b. Melting of thermafrost c. The burning of fossil fuels d. Deforestation e. The advent of nuclear reactors 2. What factor(s) determine(s) global temperature? a. Concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere b. Earth’s albedo c. Seasonal variation d. Solar intensity e. All of the above 3. Ozone has the chemical formula _______, is generally __________ in the lower atmosphere, and is _____________ in the stratosphere. a. O3, beneficial, detrimental b. O3, detrimental, beneficial c. O3, detrimental, detrimental d. O2, beneficial, detrimental e. O2, detrimental, beneficial 4. The gas most responsible for the global warming at present is a. O3 b. CO2 c. CFC d. NOx e. SO2 200 5. On a per molecule basis, which of these gases is most effective in causing global warming? a. Carbon dioxide b. Methane c. Ammonia d. Nitric Oxides e. CFCs 6. The so-called “greenhouse effect” is mainly due to a. The opacity of ozone and CO2 to infrared radiation b. The transparency of CO2 and H2O to infrared radiation c. The opacity of CO2 and H2O to infrared radiation d. The transparency of ozone to ultraviolet radiation e. All of the above 7. Which of the following gases is not considered to be a greenhouse gas? a. Nitrogen b. Methane c. Nitric oxide d. Chlorofluorocarbon e. Water vapor 8. Carbon monoxide is considered a highly poisonous gas because a. CO can be oxidized to CO2 which is a strong greenhouse gas b. CO can cause extensive damage to DNA c. CO can diffuse and prevent air from entering the lungs d. Hemoglobin has a higher affinity for O2 than for CO e. Hemoglobin has a higher affinity for CO than for O2 9. Carbon monoxide is dangerous to human health because a. It causes suffocation because it can react with hemoglobin in the blood b. The greenhouse effect will warm up the earth to a point where life will be affected c. It will reside in the lungs and produce cancer d. It is an important ingredient of photo-chemical smog e. CO can cause extensive damage to DNA 10. Which of the following statement is not correct? a. The severity of global warming problems depends on the nature, concentration, and their residence time in the atmosphere. b. We can use the concentration of air bubbles deep in the Antarctic to estimate the degree at which the earth has warmed up. c. In the worst case scenario, many Caribbean and Pacific Island countries will be buried underwater by the end of this century. d. Rising the global temperature results in increase in solubility of carbon dioxide in the ocean water. e. Rising temperature causes acceleration in rate of methane production by organic matters. 11. The primary source(s) of SO2 in the atmosphere of a large city is/are a. Waste disposal b. Incineration c. Automobiles d. Volcanic ash e. Power plants and other stationary sources 12. What is the most abundant gas in the universe? a. Hydrogen b. Oxygen c. Nitrogen d. Carbon dioxide e. Water vapor 13. Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct? a. 90% of all ozone resides in the ozone layer in the stratosphere. b. Transportation is the largest source of carbon monoxide, volatile organic matters, and nitrogen oxides. c. Nitrogen is the most common gas in the atmosphere. d. The largest source of photochemical smog in Los Angeles is automobiles. e. All of the above. 201 Chapter 8 - Air Pollution 14. The most destructive photochemical pollutant in smog is a. Particulates b. Carbon monoxide c. Carbon dioxide d. NOx e. Ozone 15. Ozone depletion is a result of the a. Reaction between nitric oxides and hydro-carbons in the presence of sunlight b. Reaction between carbon dioxide and ozone on the upper atmosphere c. Leaching mechanisms that remove ozone from the lower atmosphere d. Reaction between chlorine and bromine compounds with ozone e. Reduction in photochemical activities in the stratosphere 16. The seasonal variation in background carbon dioxide concentration is a result of a. The uncertainties inherent in the CO2 monitoring devices b. The more energy use in winter than in summer c. The more energy use in summer than in winter d. The change in the level of photosynthetic activities e. None of the above 17. Photochemical smog has its name because a. The chemical industry in Los Angeles produces photons b. Sunlight converts O3 to NO c. Sunlight converts NO2 to sulfuric acid d. A combination of NO, HC, and sunlight leads to the formation of O3 e. A combination of SO2 and sunlight leads to the formation of O3 18. Thermal inversion refers to a. A condition in which cooler air sits on top of the warmer air b. A condition in which, as a result of a large amount of emissions from cars and smoke stacks, temperature increases rather than decreases with height c. Changes in temperature between summer and winter seasons d. Cooling of the atmosphere as we move to higher elevations e. Decrease in the concentration of pollutants in the upper regions of the atmosphere 19. The most environmentally harmful emissions from automobiles powered by gasoline engines are a. CO, SO2, and NOx b. Hydrocarbon, CO, and NOx c. CO2, SO2, and NOx d. CO, O3, and NOx e. Hydrocarbon, particulates, and CO 20. Which of the following statements is correct? a. The measure of the acidity of a solution is its pH value. b. The pH scale ranges between 0 and 14. c. Pure water has a pH of 7, and is considered to be neutral. d. Acids have pH values lower than 7, and alkalines have pH values higher than 7. e. All of the above. 21. The primary source of man-made SO2 is ______; it harms people, animals, vegetation, and material through the formation of _________. a. Gasoline burning, nitric acid b. Hot springs, sulfuric acid c. Coal burning, sulfuric acid d. Coal burning, hydrocarbons e. Automobiles, smog 22. Which of the following statements about sulfur dioxide emission is true ? a. More than two-thirds of all sulfur dioxide emissions in the US are from chemical smelting plants. b. The main consequences of large sulfur dioxide emissions are acid rain and ozone destruction. c. The primary source of sulfur dioxide emission is coal combustion. d. Due to the lack of environmental regulations, 202 the poorest countries are responsible for most sulfur dioxide emissions. e. All of the above. 23. It is feared that, with the use of many SSTs (supersonic transports) and the release of Freon, the _______ in the upper atmosphere will decrease, which in turn will cause an increase in the level of __________ at the surface of the earth. a. Ozone, ozone b. Ozone, ultraviolet c. Ultraviolet, ultraviolet d. Carbon dioxide, global warming e. Ozone, greenhouse effect 24. Which of the following statements about CFCs is (are) true? a. CFCs are more harmful than HCFCs. b. The most effective mechanism for removal of CFCs from the atmosphere is by rain. c. CFCs are the main cause of global warming. d. Stratospheric ozone is produced mainly by the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels. e. All of the above. 25. The reason skin cancer can be caused by an increase in ultraviolet radiation but not in visible light at earth’s surface is a. That the wavelength of UV is longer; hence, it is more destructive b. That there is much more UV than visible light at earth’s surface c. The greenhouse effect d. UV has more energy than visible light and can breakup (ionize) biological molecules more readily than light e. All of the above 26. Which of the following statements is correct? a. The most harmful type of UV radiation endangering our environment is UV-C. b. UV-C has been cited as the main cause of increase in skin cancer in humans. c. Almost all incoming UV-C radiation is blocked by the earth’s atmosphere. d. For better results, most tanning machines use UV-B radiation. e. UV-A is completely blocked by the atmosphere and therefore is of no concern to humans. 27. You can easily feel the heat from the sun through a glass window, but behind a sheet of glass you do not feel much heat from a fireplace. This is because a. Glass is transparent to visible light and opaque to infrared b. The fireplace emits essentially pure ultraviolet radiation c. Glass is opaque to visible light and transparent to infrared d. The infrared component of solar radiation is more intense than that of fire e. None of the above 28. The 1987 United Nations’ Montreal Protocol a. Was drafted to limit consumption of fossil fuels to pre-1990 levels b. Obliged signatories to cut carbon dioxide emissions c. Was designed to gradually phase out the production of CFCs and other ozone- depleting compounds d. Established guidelines for initiating an “emission market” e. Provided incentives for voluntary reduction of greenhouse gases 29. Which chemicals are most responsible for breakdown of ozone molecules? a. Carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide b. Sulfur and nitrogen oxides c. Sulfur and carbon oxides d. Compounds containing chlorine or phosphorous e. Compounds containing chlorine or bromine 30. In which layer of the atmosphere is most of the earth’s ozone concentrated? a. Exosphere b. Mesosphere c. Thermosphere d. Stratosphere e. Troposphere 31. Which of the following chemicals have been 203 Chapter 8 - Air Pollution banned in most of the world because of their role in destroying the ozone layer? a. DDT b. Peroxide c. Mercury and heavy metals d. Chlorofluorocarbon e. All of the above 32. Radon is a. A poisonous gas produced in many industrial processes b. Found in a naturally occurring radioactive gas derived from the decay of uranium-238 c. Mostly absorbed by the atmosphere and is not of particular interest except for certain regions in the United States. d. A strong rock mostly used in building foundations e. A reference to photons emitted in radio frequency range III. True or False 1. A perfect engine produces no thermal pollution. 2. The best strategy to slow down the rate of ozone depletion is to ban or reduce the use of products that contain chlorine or bromine. 3. The so-called “greenhouse effect” is due, at least partially, to the opacity of CO2 and H2O to infrared radiation. 4. The reason that skin cancer can be caused by an increase in ultraviolet radiation but not visible light at earth’s surface is that UV wavelength is longer; hence, it is more destructive. 5. The primary source of SO2 in the atmosphere of a large city is automobile exhaust. 6. The increase observed in atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide over the past 100 years is most probably due to the SST flights in the stratosphere. 7. The brownish color of Los Angeles smog is due to particulates from the many oil-burning plants in the area. 8. Acid rain is a severe problem found mainly in areas with high traffic congestion. 9. Deforestation is of grave concern because it enhances pollution levels and reduces the capacity to remove carbon dioxide. 10. No methane is put into the atmosphere by natural processes. 11. Even if no more ozone depleting materials were to be released into the atmosphere, it would take many decades before ozone concentration in the stratosphere returns to its pre 1950s level. 12. The seasonal variation in carbon dioxide concentration can be traced to changes in levels of photosynthesis activity in plants. IV. Fill-in the Blanks 1. Long-term storage of carbon underground or in oceans to prevent buildup of carbon dioxide concentration in the atmosphere is referred to as ____________. 2. The main ingredients of ______________ smog are sunshine, hydrocarbon, water, and nitric oxides. 3. It is widely believed that ozone destruction is a result of ___________ and ___________ compounds transported from the lower to the upper atmosphere. 4. There are three basic sources of indoor contaminants: ___________, __________, and processes. 5. In the United States, the _______ is the agency responsible for developing, monitoring, and enforcing the air quality standards. 6. As of 2006, _________ has overtaken _______ as the largest contributor of greenhouse gases. 204 V. Project I - Status of international treaties In this project you are asked to carry out a literature survey and comment on the status of various international treaties and what different countries have done to comply with the established guidelines and recommendations. 1. Highlight major milestones that are to be achieved by the Kyoto Treaty and Montreal Protocol. As of today, what should have been accomplished and by whom? 2. What were the responsibilities of the country of your birth in meeting these requirements? Have they been met? If not, why? 3. How do you rate the overall success of these treaties? Have they achieved their general goals? What were the shortcomings? Project II - Status of the air quality around the world. Much of the discussion in this chapter was centered around the air pollution problems in the United States and what the US is doing in terms of air quality standards. This project concentrates on air pollution problem in the countries other than the United States. Please conduct a literature search on the Internet and other resources and answer the following questions. 1. What country were you born in or resided in for a major part of your life? 2. How is the air pollution problem in the country different from that of the United States? Why? 3. What are the sources of pollution? Which sector contributes the most? The least? 4. How do the air quality standards differ in the country from those of the United States? Project III - Global Warming and Climate In the movie “An Inconvenient Truth,” Al Gore suggested that as a consequence of global warming there has been an increase in the number of hurricanes, tornado, and other violent storms over the past few decades. Check the internet and compile the data on the frequency of these events for the last 50 years. Discuss the data and verify whether such correlations exist. If you find such correlations, does that prove this increase is as a result of global warming? Can you give an alternative explanation? Project IV - Inventory of household chemicals Take an inventory of the chemicals found in your house (kitchen, laundry, garage, etc). Classify them by their applications as solvents, detergents, paints, etc. 1. List their chemical compositions and identify them as toxic, non-toxic, volatile, organic, or biodegradable. 2. Which of these chemicals are carcinogenic, poisonous, or flammable? 3. Which of these products are causing global warming? Which ones are ozone depleting? Which ones are considered to be health hazard? 4. Can you substitute any of these products with more environmentally friendly (green) products? List. 5. What are the proper methods of disposal for each of these products?